APA Referencing Style Guide

Reference format

Author or editor Date Title Sources
Publisher information DOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Editor, C. C. [username].


(2020, January).

(2020, February 16).
    Title of article.
    Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14.

    Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12.

    Title of Periodical.

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

Parenthetical citation: (McCauley & Christiansen, 2019)

Narrative citation: McCauley and Christiansen (2019)

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31

Parenthetical citation: (Ahmann et al., 2018)

Narrative citation: Ahmann et al. (2018)

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicated calibration of love, especially in adoption. Chicago Tribune.

Parenthetical citation: (Anderson, 2018; Goldman, 2018)

Narrative citation: Anderson (2018) and Goldman (2018)

  • Do not include the database name or URL.

De Vries, R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S. E., & the members of Midwifery Science Work Group. (2013). What does it take to have a strong and independent profession of midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery, 29(10), 1122-1128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.07.007

Parenthetical citation: (De Vries et al., 2013)

Narrative citation: De Vries et al. (2013)

  • Write the name of the group author as shown on the source. This byline included the wording "the members of."

Burin, D., Kilteni, K., Rabuffetti, M., Slater, M., & Pia, L. (2019). Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements. PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article e0209899. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209899

Parenthetical citation: (Burin et al., 2019)

Narrative citation: Burin et al. (2019)

  • Capitalize the word ''Article" before the article number or eLocator.

Huestegge, S. M., Raettig, T., & Huestegge, L. (2019). Are face-incongruent voices harder to process? Effects of face-voice gender incongruency on basic cognitive information processing. Experimental Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000440

Parenthetical citation: (Huestegge et al., 2019)

Narrative citation: Huestegge et al. (2019)

Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-34. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau7988

Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/on-videogames-and-storytelling-an-interview-with-tom-bissell

Weir, K. (2017, January). Forgiveness can improve mental and physical health. Monitor on Psychology, 48(1), 30.

Parenthetical citation: (Bergeson, 2019; Bustillos, 2013; Weir, 2017)

Narrative citation: Bergeson (2019), Bustillos (2013), and Weir (2017)

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/12/04/how-will-humanity-react-to-a lien-life-psychologists-have-some-predictions

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.

Parenthetical citation: (Guarino, 2017; Hess, 2019)

Narrative citation: Guarino (2017) and Hess (2019)

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

Parenthetical citation: (Klymkowsky, 2018)

Narrative citation: Klymkowsky (2018)

KS in NJ. (2019, January 15). From this article, it sounds like men are figuring something out that women have known forever. I know of many [Comment on the article "How workout buddies can help stave off loneliness"]. The Washington Post. https://wapo.st/2HDToGJ

Parenthetical citation: (KS in NJ, 2019)

Narrative citation: KS in NJ (2019)

  • Credit the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name or a username).
  • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment; then write "Comment on the article" and the title of the article on which the comment appeared (in quotation marks and sentence case, enclosed within square brackets).
  • Link to the comment itself if possible
  • Because the comment URL was long and complex, it has been shortened. Either the long or the short form of the URL is acceptable.

Reference format

Author or editor Date Title Sources
Publisher information DOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Editor, E. E. (Ed.).

Editor E. E., & Editor, F. F. (Eds.).
(2020). Title of book.

Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).

Title of book [Audiobook].

Title of book (E.E. Editor, Ed.).

Title of book (T.Translator, Trans.; N.Narrator, Narr.).
    Publisher Name.

    First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 2018)

Narrative citation: Brown (2018)

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Parenthetical citation: (Burgess, 2019)

Narrative citation: Burgess (2019)

Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio. http://bit.ly/2G0Bpbl

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co. http://a.co/7qGBZAk

Parenthetical citation: (Cain, 2012; Christian & Griffiths, 2016)

Narrative citation: Cain (2012) and Christian and Griffiths (2016)

  • It is not necessary to note when you used an audio book versus a book or an ebook when the content is the same, even if the format is different. However, do note that the work is an audiobook in the title element when the content is different (e.g., abridged), if you want to note something special about the audiobook (e.g., the impact of the narration on the listener), or if you quote from the audiobook.
  • If the audiobook was released in a different year from the text version of the book, treat the work as republished.

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000

Parenthetical citation: (Schmid, 2017)

Narrative citation: Schmid (2017)

  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons.

Hacker Hughes, J. (Ed.). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.

Parenthetical citation: (Hacker Hughes, 2017)

Narrative citation: Hacker Hughes (2017)

Pridham, K. F., Limbo, R., & Schroeder, M. (Eds.). (2018). Guided participation in pediatric nursing practice: Relationship-based teaching and learning with parents, children, and adolescents. Springer Publishing Company. http://a.co/OIAiVgt

Parenthetical citation: (Pridham et al., 2018)

Narrative citation: Pridham et al. (2018)

Piaget, J., & lnhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.; 2nd ed.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1966)

Parenthetical citation: (Piaget & lnhelder, 1966/1969)

Narrative citation: Piaget and Jnhelder (1966/1969)

Madigan, S. (2019). Narrative therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000131-000

Parenthetical citation: (Madigan, 2019)

Narrative citation: Madigan (2019)

  • For a series of conceptually related titles, the series title is not included in the reference (this book is part of the Theories of Psychotherapy Series)

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.

The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewish Publication Society. (Original work published 1962)

Parenthetical citation: (King James Bible, 17 69/2017; The Our'an, 2004; The Torah, 1962/2015)

Narrative citation: King James Bible (1769/2017), The Our'an (2004), and The Torah (1962/2015)

  • Additional examples of religious texts are available on the APA Style website.

Reference format

Chapter author Date Chapter title Sources
Editor book information DOI or URL
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. Name of Group. (2020). Title of chapter. In E.E. Editor(Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name.

In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.),Title of book (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 212-255). Publisher Name.
https://doi.org/xxxx https://xxxxx

Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., & Safren, S. A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. lwamasa & P. A. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (2nd ed., pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0000119-012

Parenthetical citation: (Balsam et al., 2019)

Narrative citation: Balsam et al. (2019)

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Weinstock et al., 2003)

Narrative citation: Weinstock et al. (2003)

Tafoya, N., & Del Vecchio, A. (2005). Back to the future: An examination of the Native American Holocaust experience. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 55-63). Guilford Press. http://a.co/36xRhBT

Parenthetical citation: (Tafoya & Del Vecchio, 2005)

Narrative citation: Tafoya and Del Vecchio (2005)

Sacchett, C., & Humphreys, G. W. (2004). Calling a squirrel a squirrel but a canoe a wigwam: A category-specific deficit for artefactual objects and body parts. In D. A. Balota & E. J. Marsh (Eds.), Cognitive psychology: Key readings in cognition (pp. 100-108). Psychology Press. (Reprinted from "Calling a squirrel a squirrel but a canoe a wigwam: A category-specific deficit for artefactual objects and body parts," 1992, Cognitive Neuropsychology, 9[1], 73-86, http://doi.org/d4vb59)

Parenthetical citation: (Sacchett & Humphreys, 1992/2004)

Narrative citation: Sacchett and Humphreys (1992/2004)

  • Provide information for the reprinted version you used, then provide in parentheses the original article title (even if the title did not change), year, and source information.
    • Place the original journal article issue number in square brackets rather than parentheses to avoid nested parentheses.

    Goldin-Meadow, S. (201S). Gesture and cognitive development. In L. S. Liben & U. Mueller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 2. Cognitive processes (7th ed., pp. 339-380). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10. 1002/9781118963418.childpsy209

    Parenthetical citation: (Goldin-Meadow, 2015)

    Narrative citation: Goldin-Meadow (2015)

    • If the volume has both series editors (or editors-in-chief) and volume editors, only the volume editors appear in the reference.
    • The volume in this example has its own title.

    Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/ sum2019/entries/behaviorism/

    Parenthetical citation: (Graham, 2019)

    Narrative citation: Graham (2019)

    • This example is structured similarly to the reference for a chapter in an edited book because the entry has an individual author, the encyclopedia has an editor, and the whole work has a publisher.
    • Because this version of the entry is archived, a retrieval date is not needed.

    Reference format

    Author Date Title Sources
    Publisher information DOI or URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

    Name of Group.

    (2020, May 2).
    Title of report.

    Title of report (Report No. 123).

    Title of white literature [Description].
    Publisher Name. https://doi.org/xxxx


    Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012). Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations. https://www.pc.gov.au/ inquiries/completed/australia-new-zealand/report/trans-tasman.pdf

    Canada Council for the Arts. (2013). What we heard: Summary of key findings: 2013 Canada Council's Inter-Arts Office consultation. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/ collection_2017 /canadacouncil/K23-65-2013-eng.pdf

    National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of HeaIth. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-aftertreatment.pdf

    Parenthetical citation: (Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission, 2012; Canada Council for the Arts, 2013; National Cancer Institute, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Australian Government Productivity Commission and New Zealand Productivity Commission (2012), Canada Council for the Arts (2013), and National Cancer Institute (2018)

    • The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher.
    • If multiple agencies authored a report together, join the names with an ampersand, using commas to separate the names of three or more agencies.

    Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic CounciI. https:/ /www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/Democratic_ Defense_Against_Disinformation_FINAL.pdf

    Segaert, A., & Bauer, A. (2015). The extent and nature of veteran homelessness in Canada. Employment and Social Development Canada.https://www.canada.ca/ en/employment-social-development/programs/communities/homelessness/ publications-bulletins/veterans-report.html

    Parenthetical citation: (Fried & Polyakova, 2018; Segaert & Bauer, 2015)

    Narrative citation: Fried and Polyakova (2018) and Segaert and Bauer (2015)

    British Cardiovascular Society Working Group. (2016). British Cardiovascular Society Working Group report: Out-of-hours cardiovascular care: Management of cardiac emergencies and hospital in-patients. British Cardiovascular Society. http://www.bcs. com/documents/BCSOOHWP_Final_Report_05092016.pdf

    Parenthetical citation: (British Cardiovascular Society Working Group, 2016)

    Narrative citation: British Cardiovascular Society Working Group (2016)

    • Capitalize the name of the task force or working group wherever it appears in the reference because it is a proper noun.

    U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017. https://www.sec.gov/files/sec-2017-agency-financial-report.pdf

    Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017)

    Narrative citation: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2017)

    American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. https://www. counseling.org/knowledge-center

    American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

    American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). https:// www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

    Parenthetical citation: (American Counseling Association, 2014; American Nurses Association, 2015; American Psychological Association, 2017)

    Narrative citation: American Counseling Association (2014), American Nurses Association (2015), and American Psychological Association (2017)

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, February 14). FDA authorizes first interoperable insulin pump intended to allow patients to customize treatment through their individual diabetes management devices [Press release]. https://www.fda.gov/ NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm631412.htm

    Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2019)

    Narrative citation: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019)

    Reference format

    Use the template shown next to construct references for conference sessions and presentations.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Conference information DOI or URL
    Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B. (2020, September 18-20).

    (2020, October 30-November 1).
    Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. https://doi.org/xxxx


    Use the template shown next to construct references for symposium contributions.

    Author Date Contribution Title Sources
    Conference information DOI or URL
    Contributor, A. A., & Contributor, B. B. (2020, September 18-20).

    (2020, October 30-November 1).
    Title of contribution. In C.C. Chairperson (Chair), Title of syposium [Symposium]. Conference Name, Location. https://doi.org/xxxx


    Fistek, A., Jester, E., & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12-15). Everybody's got a little music in them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session]. Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States. https://asa.confex.com/asa/2017/webprogramarchives/Session9517.html

    Parenthetical citation: (Fistek et al., 2017)

    Narrative citation: Fistek et al. (2017)

    Maddox, S., Hurling, J., Stewart, E., & Edwards, A. (2016, March 30-April 2). If mama ain't happy, nobody's happy: The effect of parental depression on mood dysregulation in children [Paper presentation]. Southeastern Psychological Association 62nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, United States.

    Parenthetical citation: (Maddox et al., 2016)

    Narrative citation: Maddox et al. (2016)

    Reference format

    Use the template shown next to construct references for unpublished dissertations and theses.

    Author Date Title Source
    Author, A. A. (2020). Title of Dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].

    Title of thesis. [Unpublished master's thesis].

    Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

    Use the template shown next to construct references for published dissertations and theses.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Database or archive name URL
    Author, A. A. (2020). Title of Dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

    Title of thesis. [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

    Database name.

    Archive Name.

    Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProOuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

    Parenthetical citation: (Hollander, 2017)

    Narrative citation: Hollander (2017)

    Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master's thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive. https://digitalarchive. wm.edu/bitstream/handl.e/10288/16594/HutchesonVirginia2012.pdf

    Parenthetical citation: (Hutcheson, 2012)

    Narrative citation: Hutcheson (2012)

    Reference format

    Media type Include as the author
    Film Director
    TV series Exective producer(s)
    TV series episode Writer and director of episode
    Podcast Host or executive producer
    Podcast episode Host of episode
    Webinar Instuctor
    Classical music album or song Composer
    Modern music album or song Recording artist
    Artwork Artist
    Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
    Photograph Photographer

    Use the template shown next to construct references for audiovisual media that stand alone.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Publisher URL
    Director D. D. (Director).

    Producer P. P. (Execuive producer).

    Host H. H. (Host).

    Artist A. A.

    Uploader U. U.



    (2019, July 21).
    Title of work. [Description] Production Company. Label.

    Museum Name, Museum Location.

    Department Name, University Name.

    Use the template shown next to construct references for audiovisual media that are part of a greater whole.

    Author Date Title Sources
    Publisher URL
    Writer W. W. (Writer), & Director D. D. (Director).

    Host H. H. (Host).

    Producer P. P. (Producer).

    Composer C. C.

    Artist A. A.

    (2020, March 26).
    Title of episode (Season No., Episode no.)[Description].

    Title of Song [Description].
    In P.P. Producer (Executive Producer) Title of TV series. Production Company.

    In Title of Podcast. Production Company.

    On Title of Album. Labe

    Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

    Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/pubs/videos/4310958.aspx

    Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

    Parenthetical citation: (Forman, 1975; Fosha & Levenson, 2017; Jackson, 2001)

    Narrative citation: Forman (1975), Fosha and Levenson (2017), and Jackson (2001)

    • The director should be credited as the author of a film. However, if the director is unknown (as with the Fosha & Levenson example), someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid readers in retrieving the work; the description of role in this case matches what is on the work and is flexible.
    • It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g., in a theater, on DVD, streaming online). However, the format or other descriptive information may be included-within the square brackets, following the word "Film" and a semicolon-when you need to specify the version used (e.g., when the film's DVD release includes a commentary or special feature that you used, or when the film is a limited-release educational video or DVD). Adjust this wording as needed.

    Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.

    Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

    Parenthetical citation: (Barris, 2017; Oakley et al., 1995)

    Narrative citation: Barris (2017) and Oakley et al. (1995)

    • Include writer(s) and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name. "Writer" and "Director" are shown here, but "Executive Director" or other role descriptions might also be used.
    • Provide the season number and episode number after the title in parentheses.

    Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/simone_giertz_why_you_should_make_useless_things

    TED. (2012, March 16). Brene Brown: Listening to shame [Video]. YouTube. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=psN1DORYYVO

    Parenthetical citation: (Giertz, 2018; TED, 2012)

    Narrative citation: Giertz (2018) and TED (2012)

  • When the TED Talk comes from TED's website (as with the Giertz example), use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.
  • When the speaker is not listed as the author, integrate their name into the narrative if desired: "Brown discussed shame as a human experience (TED, 2012)."
  • Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/244405542

    Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/deiEYSYq1qi

    University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8

    Parenthetical citation: (Cutts, 2017; Fogarty, 2016; University of Oxford, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Cutts (2017), Fogarty (2016), and University of Oxford (2018)

    • The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work. Note the contributions of others who appear in the video in the text narrative if desired.

    Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile. https:// uchilefau.academia.edu/ElseZCanan

    Housand, B. (2016). Game on! Integrating games and simulations in the classroom [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/brianhousand/gameon-iagc-2016/

    Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. https://fnu.onelogin.com/login

    Parenthetical citation: (Canan & Vasilev, 2019; Housand, 2016; Mack & Spake, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Canan and Vasilev (2019), Housand (2016), and Mack and Spake (2018)

    • If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Canvas, Blackboard), or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).

    Reference format

    Author Date Title Sources
    Social media site name URL
    Twitter and Instagram:
    Author, A. A.[@username].

    Name of Group[@username].

    Facebook and others:
    Author, A. A.

    Name of Group.

    Name of Group [Username].


    (2019, August 8).
    Content of the post up to the first 20 words.

    Content of the post up to the first 20 words
    [Description of audiovisuals].

    [Description of audiovisuals].
    Site Name. https://xxxxx

    Retrieved August 27, 2020, from https://xxxxx

    APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://twitter.com/ APA_Style

    Parenthetical citation: (APA Style, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: APA Style (n.d.)

    • Provide a retrieval date because the contents of the page can change over time.
    • A Twitter profile has several tabs ("Tweets" is the default). To create a reference to one of the other tabs ( e.g., "Lists" or "Moments"), substitute that tab name for "Tweets" in the reference.
    • Include the notation "Twitter profile" in square brackets.

    Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached] [Status update). Facebook. http://bit.ly/2J0xPAD

    National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [lnfographic]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/321Ostq

    News From Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: https://scim. ag/2KlriwH [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/videos/ 10155508587605108/

    Parenthetical citation: (Gaiman, 2018; National Institute of Mental Health, 2018; News From Science, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Gaiman (2018), National Institute of Mental Health (2018), and News From Science (2018)

    • This format can be used for posts to other social media services, including Tumblr, Linkedln, and so forth.
    • If a status update includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another Facebook post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.
    • Replicate emojis if possible.

    Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/ nationalzoo

    Parenthetical citation: (Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute (n.d.)

    • Use the page title in the reference (e.g., "Timeline," "Home," "Photos," "About").
    • Include the notation "Facebook page" in square brackets.
    • This format can be used or adapted for references to other platform or profile pages, including YouTube, Instagram, Tumblr, Linkedln, and so forth.

    Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. lnstagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/

    Parenthetical citation: (Zeitz MOCAA, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Zeitz MOCAA (2018)

    The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. lnstagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://bitly.com/2FV8bu3

    Parenthetical citation: (The New York Public Library, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: The New York Public Library (n.d.)

    • Use "n.d:' for the date; although each story within a highlight is dated, the highlight itself is not dated and may include stories from multiple dates.
    • Because a highlight can change at any time, include the retrieval date.
    • Because the URL was long and complex, it has been shortened. Either the long or the short form of the URL is acceptable.

    Reference format

    Author Date Title Sources
    Website name URL
    Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

    Name of Group.

    (2020, August).

    (2020, September 28).

    Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxx

    Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xxxxx

    Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01 /03/health/respect-toward-elderlyleads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

    Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-happens-mindbody-homesick_us_5b201 ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1

    Parenthetical citation: (Avramova, 2019; Bologna, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Avramova (2019) and Bologna (2018)

    • Use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, Huffrost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox).

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_ risk.htm

    World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/

    Parenthetical citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018; World Health Organization, 2018)

    Narrative citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) and World Health Organization (2018)

    • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

    Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/ adult-health/in-depth/self-compassion-can-improve-your-resiliency/art-20267193

    Parenthetical citation: (Martin Lillie, 2016)

    Narrative citation: Martin Lillie (2016)

    Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists. http://www.ethicsguidebook.ac.uk/EthicsPrinciples

    National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika. https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/pages/what-employers-should-do-to-protectrns-from-zika

    Parenthetical citation: (Boddy et al., n.d.; National Nurses United, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: Boddy et al. (n.d.) and National Nurses United (n.d.)

    • In the Boddy et al. example, the authors are listed on the acknowledgments page of the site.
    • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

    U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

    Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)

    Narrative citation: U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)

    • When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.
    • Include a retrieval date because the contents of the page are designed to change over time and the page itself is not archived.

    Which tools are available to me?

    Three commonly used reference management tools at GCC are:



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