APA Guide

APA Citation Format Guide

English Format

A. Book

  1. Single author

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Yelland, N. (2010). Contemporary perspectives on early childhood education. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

 

  1. Multiple authors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Salvia, J., Ysseldyke, J. E., & Bolt, S. (2017). Assessment in special and inclusive education. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

 

  1. Second edition or later

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (x ed.). Location: Publisher.

Petersen, S. H. & Wittmer, D. S. (2012). Endless opportunities for infant and toddler curriculum: A relationship-based approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

 

  1. Multipe work published in the same year by the same author

Author, A. A. (Yeara). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Wagner, C. P. (1998a). Church growth and the whole gospel. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers.

Author, A. A. (Yearb). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Wagner, C. P. (1998b). Your church can grow (Rev. ed.). Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers.

 

  1. Chapter in an edited book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (Xed., pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Kelly, R. (1998). Followership in a leadership world. In L. Spears (Ed.), Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (pp. 170-184). New York: Wiley.

 

  1. eBook

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xxxx.xxxxxxxxxx.xxx.xx

Le Messurier, M. (2010). Teaching tough kids: Simple and proven strategies for student success [MyiLibrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.myilibrary.com

 

  1. Encyclopedia or dictionary (Print)

Author, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work (Vol. x). Location: Publisher.

Gilbert, P. (Ed.). (2000). Dictionary of childhood health problems (2nd ed.). Chicago: FD.

 

  1. Translated work

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (B. B. Author & C. C. Author, Trans.). Location: Publisher.

Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). New York, NY: Basic Books.

B. Journal Article

  1. Article from a database (1 author)

With DOI Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Ansari, A. (2018). The persistence of preschool effects from early childhood through adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(7), 952-973. doi:10.1037/edu0000255

Without DOIAuthor, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Barnett, W. S. (2008). Preschool education and its lasting effects: Research and policy implications. Boulder and Tempe: Education and the Public Interest Center & Education Policy Research Unit. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2ahUKEwiK6–8kZ_hAhXLIqYKHVj1AZoQFjAAegQIAxAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fnepc.colorado.edu%2Ffiles%2FPB-Barnett-EARLY-ED_FINAL.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2n6toEg6zeCyNbB-LBiT-n”>https://nepc.colorado.edu/files/PB-Barnett-EARLY-ED_FINAL.pdf

 

  1. Article from a database (2 – 5 authors)

With DOIAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., & Author, E. E. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Odom, S., Buysse, V. & Soukakou, E. (2011). Inclusion for young children with disabilities: A quarter century of research perspectives. Journal of Early Intervention. 33(4), 344-356. doi:10.1177/1053815111430094

Without DOIAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., & Author, E. E. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Odom, S., Buysse, V. & Soukakou, E. (2011). Inclusion for young children with disabilities: A quarter century of research perspectives. Journal of Early Intervention. 33(4), 344-356. Retrieved from
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=2ahUKEwijmY-Ol5_hAhWSCqYKHSOEClsQFjAFegQIARAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.830.7463%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&usg=AOvVaw129hbK58MNSqh5IthM5EJ3

 

  1. Article from a database (6 – 7 authors)

With DOI – Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., & Author, G. G. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Glover, M., Scragg, R., Min, S., Kira, A., Nosa, V., McCool, J., & Bullen, C. (2011). Driving kids to smoke? Children’s reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 1027-1031. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.06.003

Without DOIAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F. & Author, G. G. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Glover, M., Scragg, R., Min, S., Kira, A., Nosa, V., McCool, J., & Bullen, C. (2011). Driving kids to smoke? Children’s reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 1027-1031. Retrieved from http://0-www.sciencedirect.com.alpha2.latrobe.edu.au/science

 

  1. Article from a database (8 or more authors).

With DOIAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Author, G. G. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Brinkman, S. A., Gialamas, A., Rahman, A., Mittinty, M. N., Gregory, T. A., Silburn, S., … Lynch, J. W. (2012). Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: Analysis of a national census of 5-year-olds in Australia. BMJ Open, 2(5), 1-14 (e001075). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001075

Without DOIAuthor, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., . . . Author, G. G. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume, pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Brinkman, S. A., Gialamas, A., Rahman, A., Mittinty, M. N., Gregory, T. A., Silburn, S., … Lynch, J. W. (2012). Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: Analysis of a national census of 5-year-olds in Australia. BMJ Open, 2(5), 1-14. Retrieved from https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/2/5/e001075?cited-by=yesl2%2F5%2Fe001075

 

  1. Article from a print journal

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pp-pp.

Yuen, G. W. K. (2007). Vouchers in Hong Kong: A new milestone in early childhood education? Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 8(4), 355-357.

 

  1. Article from the internet

With DOIAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Merrill, C., & Daugherty, J. (2010). STEM education and leadership: A mathematics and science partnership approach. Journal of Technology Education, 21(2), 21-34. doi:10.1109/5.628723

Without DOIAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

The Shanker Institute. (2009). Preschool curriculum: What’s in it for children and teachers? Retrieved from: http://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/
preschool-curriculum

C. World Wide Web

  1. Webpage

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of Website. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

LDPride.net. (n.d.). Learning styles test. Retrieved on September 22, 2016, from http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm

  1. Document from a website

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of article. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). (2011). Code of ethical conduct and statement of commitment. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2ahUKEwici-_kmp_hAhWLv5QKHWgqCUAQFjAAegQIARAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.naeyc.org%2Ffiles%2Fnaeyc%2Ffile%2Fpositions%2FPSETH05.pdf&usg=AOvVaw3AbBodDllZzU1wkS5XbBW8″>https://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf

 

  1. Social media

(a) Tweet

Author. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Enter the tweet message here [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com

Rudd, K. [KRuddMP]. (2013, May 28). Talking to @BillGates re vaccinations & eliminating polio. Oz working with Gates Foundation on all these [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/MrKRudd/status/339201056472985600

(b) Facebook

Author. [Given name]. (Year, Month Day). Enter Facebook post here (up to first 40 words) [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://facebook.com

Rudd, K. [Kevin]. (2013, July 1). Just launched the first site for DisabilityCare Australia in NSW: Australia’s first national disability insurance plan. Critical for 500k fellow Australians. KRudd [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://facebook.com

(c) Instagram

Author. [Given name]. (Year, Month Day). Enter Instagram post here (up to first 40 words) [ Media Types]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2018, May 12). Happy Mother’s Day!! “It is important for the son to have a close relationship with his mother while he is [Instagram video]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BirIQFnnmzd/

 

  1. Online Video

Lastname, Initial. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Khan Academy. (2011, September 12). Childhood growth [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gF0aA-si89Y&feature=share&list=PL01AEFFF7C4C3C881&index=18

 

  1. Blog Post

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of entry [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Chatham, C. (2007, January 18). Source Monitoring and Childhood Amnesia [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/01/18/post-4

 

  1. Blog Post Comment

Name. (Year, Month Day). Re: Title of entry [Blog comment]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

TealRose. (2011, February 16). Re: Source Monitoring and Childhood Amnesia [Blog comment]. Retrieved from https://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/01/18/post-4

D. Government Publication

  1. Document

Author, A. (year). Title of document (document number if applicable). Retrieved date, from URL.

Education Bureau, HKSAR. (2016). School self-evaluation manual. Retrieved Match 21, 2019, from: http://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/edu-system/preprimary-kindergarten/quality-assurance-framework/sse/SSE_Manual_Eng.pdf

  1. articles

Author, A. (year). Title of articles. Title of Newspaper, pp.

Morris, S. (2007, March 9). Why children become so attached to toys and comfort blankets. The Guardian, p. 14.

E. Types of resources

  1. Motion picture or film

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Achbar, M. & Abbott, J. (Directors). (2005) The corporation [Motion picture]. US: Zeitgeist Films.

 

  1. Video or DVD

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video or DVD [VHS Video or DVD]. Country of Origin: Studio.

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from https://www.apa.org/pubs/videos/4310767

 

  1. Music recording

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)

Lang, K. D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

**For notes

Books
• Only the first word of the title (and subtitle) should be capitalised. Proper nouns should also be capitalised. The title should be written in italics.
• Any additional information goes in parentheses after the title, e.g. edition, report or volume number. This information is not written in italics.
• If a volume is part of a larger, separately titled series, treat the series and volume titles as a two-part title.
• Always place a full stop at the end of the title.
Journal article, Newspaper article
• Only the first word of the title (and subtitle) should be capitalised. Proper nouns should also be capitalised. Do not italicise the title or place quotation marks around it.
• Always place a full stop at the end of the title.

The information is based on the following style manual. Please consult with this manual directly for more detailed information:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Chinese Format

中文

(一) 書本

周昭倫(2016)。《戲有益:戲劇融入學前教育教案集》。香港:香港話劇團。

李俊亮、黃婉萍(2017)。《劇場的用家(第2版)》。香港:國際演藝評論家協會(香港分會)。

黃潔薇編(2013)。《生活學習套:藝術活動資源手冊(幼兒班、低班、高班、上、下學期)》。香港:教育出版社。

顏士程、李英中、鄭孟忠、陳世穎(2013)。《教保專業倫理》。臺北:華騰文化。

(二) 光碟

黃樹誠、郭潔玲、林惠雯(2010)。《創意綜合式幼兒肢體課程》[DVD]。香港:香港教育學院。

曾小星、陳艷媚編 (1997)。《土風舞教材精華:舞蹈配樂鐳射唱片及錄影帶》。香港:卓思。

(三) 章節

林惠雯(2010)。〈創意的概念〉,輯於黃樹誠編,《創意綜合式幼兒肢體課程》,(頁60-82)。香港:香港教育學院。

(四) 網站

黃蕙吟、張杏冰、張麗霞、黃潔薇(2002)。《兒童音、體、美綜合活動的探索:香港幼兒教育工作者對藝術及創意教育的分享》。香港:香港教育學院。取自https://edvideo.lib.eduhk.hk/tc/channels/eduhk/series/b15966343

熊熊兒童音樂製作中心(2018)。熊熊兒童合唱團。取自http://www.bear.com.hk

(五) 期刊文章

常雅珍、吳佳樺(2009)。〈一位資深幼教老師的生涯發展歷程〉。《臺中教育大學學報》,第23期,頁117–144。http://ntcuir.ntcu.edu.tw/bitstream/987654321/1416/2/116.pdf

林清章(2012)。〈幼兒園教師專業能力指標之建構〉。《幼兒教保研究期刊》,第8期,頁 53–79。

(六) 翻譯本

Lilian G. Katz (1986)。《專業的幼教老師》(廖鳳瑞譯)。臺北:信誼基金出版社。(原書 Katz, L. G. [1978]. Ethical behavior in early childhood
education. Washington, DC: NAEYC.)

**Note: This Chinese APA format is referred to《傳播與社會學刊》.